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Macrophage CD5L is a target for cancer immunotherapy.

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Background: Reprogramming of immunosuppressive tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) presents an attractive therapeutic strategy in cancer. The aim of this study was to explore the role of macrophage CD5L protein in TAM activity and assess its potential as a therapeutic target.

Methods: Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against recombinant CD5L were raised by subcutaneous immunization of BALB/c mice. Peripheral blood monocytes were isolated from healthy donors and stimulated with IFN/LPS, IL4, IL10, and conditioned medium (CM) from different cancer cell lines in the presence of anti-CD5L mAb or controls. Subsequently, phenotypic markers, including CD5L, were quantified by flow cytometry, IF and RT-qPCR. Macrophage CD5L protein expression was studied in 55 human papillary lung adenocarcinoma (PAC) samples by IHC and IF. Anti-CD5L mAb and isotype control were administered intraperitoneally into a syngeneic Lewis Lung Carcinoma mouse model and tumor growth was measured. Tumor microenvironment (TME) changes were determined by flow cytometry, IHC, IF, Luminex, RNAseq and RT-qPCR.

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