Synonymous genome recoding: a tool to explore microbial biology and new therapeutic strategies

Synonymous genome recoding: a tool to explore microbial biology and new therapeutic strategies

Data de publicació online: 04/10/2019 Data de publicació en paper: 18 Novembre 2019 Revista: Nucleic Acids Research

Abstract:

Synthetic genome recoding is a new means of generating designed organisms with altered phenotypes. Synonymous mutations introduced into the protein coding region tolerate modifications in DNA or mRNA without modifying the encoded proteins. Synonymous genome-wide recoding has allowed the synthetic generation of different small-genome viruses with modified phenotypes and biological properties. Recently, a decreased cost of chemically synthesizing DNA and improved methods for assembling DNA fragments (e.g. lambda red recombination and CRISPR-based editing) have enabled the construction of an Escherichia coli variant with a 4-Mb synthetic synonymously recoded genome with a reduced number of sense codons (n = 59) encoding the 20 canonical amino acids. Synonymous genome recoding is increasing our knowledge of microbial interactions with innate immune responses, identifying functional genome structures, and strategically ameliorating cis-inhibitory signaling sequences related to splicing, replication (in eukaryotes), and complex microbe functions, unraveling the relevance of codon usage for the temporal regulation of gene expression and the microbe mutant spectrum and adaptability. New biotechnological and therapeutic applications of this methodology can easily be envisaged. In this review, we discuss how synonymous genome recoding may impact our knowledge of microbial biology and the development of new and better therapeutic methodologies.

Autors: Martínez MA, Jordan-Paiz A, Franco S, Nevot M

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