Primary resistance to integrase strand transfer inhibitors in Spain using ultrasensitive HIV-1 genotyping

Primary resistance to integrase strand transfer inhibitors in Spain using ultrasensitive HIV-1 genotyping

Online publication: 15/09/2020 Printed publication: 15 September 2020 Journal: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

Abstract:

Background
Transmission of resistance mutations to integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs) in HIV-infected patients may compromise the efficacy of first-line antiretroviral regimens currently recommended worldwide. Continued surveillance of transmitted drug resistance (TDR) is thus warranted.

Objectives
We evaluated the rates and effects on virological outcomes of TDR in a 96 week prospective multicentre cohort study of ART-naive HIV-1-infected subjects initiating INSTI-based ART in Spain between April 2015 and December 2016.

Methods
Pre-ART plasma samples were genotyped for integrase, protease and reverse transcriptase resistance using Sanger population sequencing or MiSeq™ using a ≥ 20% mutant sensitivity cut-off. Those present at 1%-19% of the virus population were considered to be low-frequency variants.

Results
From a total of 214 available samples, 173 (80.8%), 210 (98.1%) and 214 (100.0%) were successfully amplified for integrase, reverse transcriptase and protease genes, respectively. Using a Sanger-like cut-off, the overall prevalence of any TDR, INSTI-, NRTI-, NNRTI- and protease inhibitor (PI)-associated mutations was 13.1%, 1.7%, 3.8%, 7.1% and 0.9%, respectively. Only three (1.7%) subjects had INSTI TDR (R263K, E138K and G163R), while minority variants with integrase TDR were detected in 9.6% of subjects. There were no virological failures during 96 weeks of follow-up in subjects harbouring TDR as majority variants.

Conclusions
Transmitted INSTI resistance remains rare in Spain and, to date, is not associated with virological failure to first-line INSTI-based regimens.

Authors: Casadellà M, Santos JR, Noguera-Julian M, Micán-Rivera R, Domingo P, Antela A, Portilla J, Sanz J, Montero-Alonso M, Navarro J, Masiá M, Valcarce-Pardeiro N, Ocampo A, Pérez-Martínez L, Pasquau J, Vivancos MJ, Imaz A, Carmona-Oyaga P, Muñoz-Medina L, Villar-García J, Barrufet P, Paredes R

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